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Why learning styles are so important? An individual test is one that is given to one child by an examiner who asks the child to perform certain tasks and answer certain questions. A group test is one which is administered to a large number of children simultaneously. Each child is given a printed booklet of questions. Answers are marked in this booklet or on a special answer sheet which can be scored mechanically. Since most children are given group tests, administered by teachers who have had no special training in this field, the unreliability of the IQ becomes even more apparent. It's important to know to find a method of college essay help which suits the best. In relation to the way the IQ is used in the schools, Prof. Goodenough also points out: "A rather remarkable example of 'wishful thinking' is apparent in the almost universal tendency of school people to ignore the 50 percent last mentioned [those whose I Qs will vary by more than 5 points in either direction when retested] and to utilize the results of single tests in educational classification and guidance with a degree of assurance that would be warranted only if the entire range of variation was no greater than that shown in the middle 50 percent [those whose IQs will vary by less than 5 points in either direction when retested.]" If the scores of half the children will vary so much when retested, why do statisticians and psychologists speak of the "constancy" of the IQ? Because there is no other single method of measuring intelligence that approaches the reliability of relative constancy of the IQ. But with relevance to the individual child-the second way of considering the IQ-the reliability of the IQ takes on an entirely different aspect. For, as we have seen, changes of twelve, eighteen, and twenty points are not uncommon, and for the individual child such changes can be tremendously significant. Finally, in addition to the standard deviation factor and the relative unreliability of the IQ, another condition justifies downgrading the importance of the IQ. There is an enormous number of tests, each one constructed by a different psychologist, each one different from the others, and each one claiming to measure intelligence better than all the rest. Later we shall go into the differences among these tests, but for the moment it is important only to understand that no single test enjoys universal acceptance in the schools; that many different tests are used by each school system and even within each school; and, most important of all, that no two tests give the same results for the same child. So this is the IQ. When Kathy is six years old she is given Test A and scores 95. Taking into account the standard deviation, this means that her IQ might be 110 or it might be 80; the score indicates only that it is most probably somewhere in between. Then there is one chance in two that if she were retested, even immediately, her actual score would be over 100 or below 90. If she had been given Test B instead, she might have scored 120-or perhaps 70. At eight years of age she may be tested again, this time with Test C. It would not be at all extraordinary if her score resulted in an IQ of 132. The chances of such a sequence of scores are probably almost as good as her chances of scoring 95 in each of these three tests. Kathy's 95 IQ would land her squarely in the middle of an average class, where she would get an average education. But Kathy's 95 IQ does not conclusively prove that she is of average ability or potential. It is at best a poor indication of what she might be capable of achieving. If she has great potential, it might show itself no matter what kind of class she is in. But for every child who develops his potential satisfactorily, there are many other children whose potentials are never realized. Certainly one of the prime forces that help a child realize his potential is a stimulating, challenging, and enriched education. The IQ should not play the important role that it does in keeping some children from that kind of education.